How to generate monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies?

Plyclonal are easy to make by immunising a host animal while monoclonals need a sterile lab to merge splenocystes with cell lines that will never die and produce forever monoclonal antibodies mostly mouse splenocytes are used for production. The monoclonals are called clone and have their own name or number.

What is theft of Monoclonal cell lines?

A student or post Doc may take home monoclonal cell lines in carbo ice and store them in a minus 85 freezer for weeks or liquid nirtrogen container called dewar. However the clone stays property of his employer most often a University or Governmnetal Institution. 

The thief cannot sell the antibody producing cell line under the original name. A thrick used by monoclonal cell line thiefs is to give another clone name to the cell. Exacly the same cell lines are circulating under different clona name. QBEND10 CD35 stemm cell marker is an example of an cell line that is available under other names.

How large is the illeagal monoclonal cell line market?

Monoclonal cell line theft in the USA, UK and Europe is costing  10 million of income loss to Universities, estimation 2022 made by Lieven Gevaert, Bio-ir. Gentaur BV.

 Are there lots of cell lines lost by accident?

Monoclonal cell line loss, intenianally when a project stops or accidentially by a bubble in the N2 container is estimated to 1 million USD of income loss to the owners.

 What are the most famouse cell line losses in Belgian research history?

Famous losses are the ULB HPV best monoclonal collection where the freezer was stopped intentionally whe the funding stopped. Unfortunately no monoclonal thiefs had copies of these unique cell lines.

Examples of accidential cell line loss.

  1. The best MIP2 antibody was accidentially lost by KULeuven in 2002
  2. GSK in Rixensart and Johnson and Johnson, Janssens Pharmaceutica in Beerse, UCB Pharma in Braine l'Alleud all losts valualble cell lines due to a N2 liquid Nitrogen problem both in the backup dewar and master dewar.
  3. Orla Proteins is storing cell lines at Gentaur BV in Belgium safe room. Also Gentaur has known a loss of 1 dewar in 2012 due to an air bubble.

What are the most used used applications of antibodies?

Research of immunology includes immunoprecipitation, sandwich ELISA, Western blot, immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy, flow cytometry, receptor neutralization, and cell depletion.